Subconscious Mind Book

We learn from everything and everyone around us, it´s up to us to spot an opportunity and learn from it. People, usually, want a fast solution to not only their current problems, but to everything and, I can assure you, this book it´s exactly NOT that, or maybe it is. This book shows you how your mind works, how you can improve your life and live the life you want, if you dare. We are taught and we come to believe, that the…

What is Evolutionary psychology?

In the three and a half centuries since William Harvey proved that the purpose of the heart is to pump blood, physiologists have revealed the functional organization of the body in blinding detail. Their discoveries demonstrate beyond question that the structure of the body serves survival and reproduction. Further, there is near unanimity among biologists that this functional structure is a product of natural selection. In…

Humanistic Model psychology

What is the humanistic-existential model, and how is different from prior models? Psychology greats such as Maslow, Rogers and May lead the way toward a new model of behavior that has changed the way psychologists view a client. Click next lesson whenever you finish a lesson and quiz. Got It You now have full access to our lessons and courses. Watch the lesson now or keep exploring. Got It You re 25% of the way through this…

Evolutionary developmental Psychology

Evolutionary Perspectives on Human Development, Second Edition considers the role of evolutionary theory in the field of developmental psychology to examine key topics of individual human development. This unique book fills an important gap in the literature, applying evolutionary models to human development by focusing on central development issues. The book emphasizes both domain-general evolved psychological mechanisms and domain-specific processes. The text also integrates behavior-genetic research with evolutionary and developmental principles. Evolutionary Perspectives on Human Development provides state-of-the-art groundwork in evolutionary theory as viewed by leading thinkers in the field.

Psychology of Personal Constructs

How Exactly Does Personal Construct Theory Work?

Kelly believed that we start by first developing a set of personal constructs, which are essentially mental representations that we use to interpret events. These constructs are based on our experiences and observations.

During the early 1950s, the behavioral and psychoanalytic perspectives were still quite dominant in psychology. Kelly proposed his personal construct theory as an alternative view that departed from these two prominent points of view.

Rather than viewing human beings as passive subjects who were at the whims of the associations, reinforcements, and punishments they encountered in their environments (behaviorism) or their unconscious wishes and childhood experiences (psychoanalysis), Kelly believed that people take an active role in how they collect and interpret knowledge.

“Behavior is not the answer to the psychologist’s question; it is the question,” he suggested.

As we live our lives, we perform “experiments” that put our beliefs, perceptions, and interpretations of the test. If our experiments work, they strengthen our current beliefs. When they don’t, we are able to change our views.

What makes these constructs so important? Because according to Kelly, we experience the world through the “lens” of our constructs. These constructs are used to predict and anticipate events, which in turn determines our behaviors, feelings, and thoughts.

Kelly also believed that all events that happen are open to multiple interpretations, which he referred to as constructive alternativism. When we are trying to make sense of an event or situation, he suggested that we are also able to pick and choose which construct we want to use. This sometimes happens as an event unfolds, but we can also reflect back on our experiences and then choose to view them in different ways.

How Do We Use Constructs?

Kelly believed that the process of using constructs works in much the same way that a scientist utilizes a theory. First, we begin by hypothesizing that a particular construct will apply to a particular event. We then test this hypothesis by applying the construct and predicting the outcome. If our prediction is correct, then we know that the construct is useful in this situation and we retain it for future use.

But what happens if our predictions don’t come true? We might reconsider how and when we apply the construct, we might alter the construct, or we might decide to abandon the construct altogether.

Recurrences play an important role in personal construct theory. Constructs emerge because they reflect things that frequently recur in our experience. Kelly also believed that constructs tend to be organized in a hierarchical fashion. For example, more basic constructs might lie and the base of the hierarchy, while more complex and abstract constructs lie can be found at higher levels.

Kelly also believed that constructs are bipolar; essentially, each construct consists of a pair of two opposing sides. Some examples include “active versus passive,” “stable versus changing,” and “friendly versus unfriendly.” The side that a person applies to an event is known as the emergent pole. The side that is not being actively applied is the implicit pole.

It is essential to remember the emphasis on individuality in personal construct theory. Constructs are inherently personal because they are based on each person’s life experiences. Each person’s system of constructs is unique, and it is the individual nature of these experiences that form the differences between people.